TRUMP Cost-effective User Centred Design

Developing instructional systems

If you are preparing online instructional materials you need to plan for three related objectives:

  • It should be easy for the instructor to administer the material.
  • It should be easy for the student to access and navigate the material.
  • The student should achieve their learning objectives.

Testing learning objectives

Learning objectives can be tested by use of appropriate tests of comprehension or understanding at the end of the learning session. A successful learning outcome validates both the content of the instructional material, and the ability of the student to interact with the material successfully. Further information can be found in the relevant books below.

Reference books

The following reference books describe additional methods and techniques that are appropriate for use with instructional systems.

Context of use: how the instructional system will be used

Analysing the Instructional Setting. Martin Tessmer, Duncan Harris. 1992

Task Analysis Methods for Instructional Design. David H. Jonassen, Martin Tessmer, Wallace H. Hannum. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 1999

Design and evaluation

Web-Teaching: A Guide to Designing Interactive Teaching for the World Wide Web. David W. Brooks. Plenum Publishing. 1997

Instructional Technology for Teaching and Learning : Designing Instruction, Integrating Computers, and Using Media . Timothy J. Newby, Stepich Donald, Lehman James, Russell James. Prentice Hall, 1999.

The Design Development and Evaluation of Instructional Software. Michael J. Hannafin, Kyle L. Peck. MacMillan Pub Co, 1997?


Classroom Based Assessment: Evaluating Instructional Outcomes. Gerald A. Tindal, Douglas B. Marston. Prentice Hall, 1990.

Guidelines for the Evaluation of Instructional Technology Resources. California Instructional Technology Clearinghouse (Editor) Intl Soc for Tech in Educ, 1998.

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